An air conditioner is a device that moves heat energy from the room in which it is located to the environment or vice versa, depending on the needs for cooling or heating. The home air conditioner was patented by the American inventor Willis Carrier, and the first such device was manufactured and installed in the distant 1928. The principle of operation is based on a closed loop process (Carnot cycle) and the property of liquids to absorb heat when evaporated and give off heat during liquefaction (condensation).
The air conditioner is an all-season appliance and its use for heating and cooling is the preferred choice due to the following main advantages:
- extremely easy to operate, without the need for physical effort;
- ability to regulate humidity and protect against mold and allergens;
- automatic regulation and temperature control;
- high energy efficiency.
A wide variety of different models and brands of air conditioning systems are available on the market, the main types being determined by the method of temperature regulation, application (for domestic or industrial premises) and the method of installation.
Air conditioners - way of working:
It runs at full power until the set temperature is reached, after which it switches off. To maintain the set temperature, the compressor is constantly switched on and off, thus consuming more electricity. Conventional air conditioning is low-end in terms of functionality - difficult to set up and slowly changes the temperature in the room. It is characterized by low energy efficiency class, low cost and are especially suitable for cooling.
Despite its higher price, it is preferred by consumers due to its advantages - automatic power regulation, high energy efficiency class and low noise levels.
They consist of one body and such are window and mobile air conditioners;
The two main elements (evaporator and condenser) are divided into separate bodies, installed inside and outside the room, respectively. The outdoor unit consists of a condenser and a compressor and is mounted outdoors, usually on the wall of a building or balcony. The indoor unit consists of an evaporator and a thermostatic valve. The two bodies are connected by pipes through which the coolant circulates, usually freon.
Multi split systems
They are a variety in which the indoor units are more than one and can be with different power and different types - wall, ceiling, duct, cassette and others. The outdoor unit is one and this preserves the aesthetics of the building.
Household air conditioners
For heating and cooling apartments, small offices, villas and private houses
- Wall. These air conditioners are mainly in the version of split or multi split systems and are most widely used for air conditioning of homes, offices and shops. The indoor unit is mounted high on the wall, and the outdoor unit is usually under the window, and the distance between them should not exceed 3-4 meters. They are designed for heating and cooling of rooms up to 70 m2;
- Floors. They are mounted on the floor or slightly above it and are especially suitable for attics up to 45 m2. They provide more even heating and cooling of the room and are extremely quiet and functional;
- Window. These are the oldest type of air conditioners, which are a monoblock system built into the window as the compressor is on the outside and the control panel is on the inside of the window. They are characterized by very low price and easy installation;
- Mobile. They are a monoblock system that is on wheels and can be easily moved anywhere in the room. They are designed mainly for cooling and have a flexible air duct, which is connected to a door or window and through which warm air is removed. Some models have a built-in ionizer and air purification filters.
Commercial (semi-industrial) air conditioners
For heating and cooling of restaurants, shops and other commercial sites:
- Ceilings. Suitable for large rooms without suspended ceilings. They are mounted directly on the ceiling, whereby the air flow is distributed horizontally in all directions, without directly affecting people;
- Duct. They are designed for concealed installation behind a suspended ceiling in order not to change the interior of the room. They are characterized by small size, high power for air conditioning of several rooms and can be conventional or inverter;
- Cassette. They are installed in a suspended ceiling, and the lower part has the dimensions of the ceiling panels 60 x 60 cm. They are used for air conditioning of large rooms, and several cassette air conditioners with less power can be installed instead of one duct;
- Columns. In appearance they resemble an air conditioner and are used for air conditioning of large rooms such as restaurants, shopping malls and gyms, as well as connected rooms with a large floor area. They are mounted on the floor and can be placed anywhere in the room where there is free space. They are characterized by high power, which creates a strong flow of air and it is recommended that there are no people near them.
Industrial air conditioners
For heating and cooling in large shopping centers, halls and warehouses:
- Sectional air chambers;
- Air conditioning with chiller;
- Multi-zone VRV / VRF air conditioning systems;
- Rooftop air conditioners.